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Attorney General
Sean D. Reyes
Utah Office of the Attorney General
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Sex Trafficking Victims – C-SPAN Video


Thursday, May 14, 2015

Mr. Chairman, Members of the Committee, thank you for the opportunity to address what I consider to be one of the greatest evils plaguing our world today; specifically, Child Sexual Slavery or the Trafficking of Children for Sex Exploitation.

As the Attorney General of the great state of Utah, I am the highest ranking prosecutor in our state.  In this capacity, I am familiar with all manner of crimes.

I oversee approximately 80 certified peace officers who serve as investigators for the state, either full-time or from partner agencies that are affiliates of our Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force or Secure Strikeforce, both multi-agency teams under the AG’s office focused on combating crimes such as child sexual abuse, exploitation and child pornography and disrupting the trafficking of women and children for various reasons including sex and sex exploitation.

While I believe trafficking of persons is one of the most insidious of the many crimes we confront, it is also one of the least understood and least recognized by the public.

In addition to offering my support today for the International Megan’s Law Bill (HR 515) sponsored by Chairman Smith and passed by the House, I would also like to paint with a slightly broader brush in giving texture to more comprehensive issues pertaining to human trafficking.

To that end, let me begin with a few generalized statistics re the trafficking of persons.

Overview of Worldwide Statistics:

  • There are currently an estimated 20-30 million modern day slaves worldwide. People taken or lured into servitude and held against their will.  International Labour Organization, ILO global estimate of forced labour: results and methodology (2012) p. 13.
  •  To put that number in perspective, that is twice as many modern day slaves than there were during the trans-Atlantic slave trade from the 16th to 19th centuries all combined—which was 10-13 million people by most scholarly accounts.
  • Human Trafficking has become the 2nd Most Lucrative Criminal Enterprise Internationally (only trailing drug trafficking and ahead of even arms dealing and counterfeiting).
  • It Generates an estimated 150 billion dollars or more annually but it is very difficult to quantify because of how little is reported.
  • The United Nations Office on Drugs & Crime—estimates 18% of victims are forced into hard labor; other are conscripted into military servitude, recruited for terrorism, forced into acting as suicide bombers, part of illegal adoptions, or killed to harvest their organs on the black market.
  • But the overwhelming majority, approximately 80% are forced into sex slavery or sex exploitation,
  • Sex exploitation includes forcing victims into prostitution and compelling victims to commit sex acts for the purpose of creating pornography.

And now let me focus a few more statistics on sexual slavery

  • Trafficking women and children for sexual exploitation is the fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world.1This, despite the fact international law and the laws of 134 countries criminalize sex trafficking.
  • About 2 million children are exploited every year in the global commercial sex trade.3 3UNICEF, Children Out of Sight, Out of Mind, Out of Reach; Abused and Neglected, Millions of Children Have Become Virtually Invisible (Dec. 2005).
  • Women and girls make up 98% of victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation.5 5International Labour Organization, Minimum Estimate of Forced Labour in the World (April 2005) p. 6.
  • Anectdotal estimates from survivors are that only 1 in 10 victims caught up in “the life” of sexual trafficking are able to escape alive.  That would mean 90% never make it out alive.
  • According to the U.S. State Department, 600,000 to 800,000 people are trafficked across international borders every year, of which 80% are female and half are children.

A quote from a young, international Sex Trafficking Victim:

 They forced me to sleep with as many as 50 customers a day.  I had to give [the pimp] all my money. If I did not [earn a set amount] they punished me by removing my clothes and beating me with a stick until I fainted, electrocuting me, cutting me.

When I first heard experiences such as these, I thought they were not humanly possible to endure. I am dreadfully sorry to report I was wrong. Having heard from many more victims, they have corroborated the fact that these children can be raped dozens, if not scores of times every day.

Utah RAX Case:

In February of 2014, based on a tip from our immigrant community and a brave man who wore a wire to help us gather evidence, my office arrested Victor Emmanuel Rax, a Central American individual, based on evidence of trafficking children, raping numerous young boys and forcing them to sell his drugs into not just high schools but junior high and elementary schools in Salt Lake County.

Upon arrest, we consulted with our federal law enforcement partners, who indicated that they knew of Rax, had tried to make a case against him for years but that witnesses became too intimidated or disappeared in the past.

They also indicated Rax had been deported 7 times back to Central America, where he had spent time in prison for crimes related to drugs and child sexual abuse and was a member of an international gang.  Rax had just come back into the US after each deportation.   We were not willing to let him escape again.

When we, with the cooperation of our federal counterparts, made the decision to prosecute Rax in the US Justice system and keep him here rather than deport, we had over 60 victims and witnesses come forward to testify by the time we filed information and charging documents.  With such overwhelming evidence, Rax took his own life during the pendency of the trial.

With an International Megan’s Law and attendant MOUs and bilateral agreements, Guatemala or El Salvador could have notified the U.S. to warn us of the monster within our midst.

Also, if these countries had the expertise, software, forensic technology, investigative techniques, prosecutorial experience that we have in the U.S., there may never have been a Victor Rax coming to Utah as they could have handled his case in his country of origin.

Utah Trafficking Cases:

The RAX case opened my eyes to the violations being perpetrated upon some of our most vulnerable.  We have significantly increased the number of investigations and prosecutions of trafficking cases in Utah during my administration.

Just within the past two weeks, I participated with my strike force team on an undercover sting and raid of a massage parlor we believe to be a front for sex trafficking. It was a site I had personally surveiled over a period of a year.

In Utah, we have worked closely with legislators to enhance penalties for trafficking and to treat victims as victims rather than perpetrators.

During the RAX case, I heard of an organization based in Utah called Operation Underground Railroad, which was just starting-up.  When I spoke to the founder, Tim Ballard, I told him I was impressed by 3 things: (1) the emphasis OUR puts into providing resources, counseling, training, stability to victims they liberate from trafficking and the involvement of Elizabeth Smartin their organization; (2) the focus on training local law enforcem